Eric Florantin TANKEU
Pour l'amélioration du cadre de vie des populations en zone rurale, sachant que le biogaz améliore les conditions de vie des femmes en réduisant le temps alloué à la cueillette du bois
Au niveau de santé, élimine les maladies respiratoires occasionnées par l'inhalation prolongée des fumées nocives issues de la combustion du bois ou du charbon sachant aussi que dans certaines régions on cuisine avec les bouses de vache séchées.
Le projet biogaz répond aux critères du développement durable et comprend:
le transfert de technologies aux communautés, la formation du personnel autant pour la construction du système que son entretien et sa gestion ainsi que la fourniture locale des pièces et équipements.
La technique de la méthanisation consiste à produire une énergie propre à partir de matières organiques comme le fumier. Par simple combustion du gaz obtenu, également appelé biogaz, les utilisateurs peuvent s'éclairer ou cuisiner rapidement. Une aubaine pour des régions pauvres et désertiques.
Grâce à ce procédé, on réduit considérablement la consommation de bois et donc la déforestation considérée comme problème majeur.
Méthaniseur: Le méthaniseur a un fonctionnement très simple. Il est composé de trois sous ensembles : l'entrée, la chambre de fermentation et la sortie. On alimente le méthaniseur avec le fumier du bétail mélangé à de l'eau. Les déchets organiques tombent ensuite dans la chambre de fermentation totalement hermétique. Il y a alors une réaction de fermentation et de transformation de matière organique qui produit du méthane appelé aussi biogaz. Ce méthane est alors utilisé comme combustible pour produire de la chaleur ou de la lumière. A la sortie du méthaniseur on récupère le résidu de la décomposition, un composte totalement naturel et inodore utilisé par la suite pour l'agriculture. Ainsi la méthanisation constitue une boucle fermée et contribue à son propre fonctionnement.
Tout d'abord, la méthanisation réduit considérablement le taux d'abattage des arbres. Aujourd'hui on a pu démontrer qu'une famille d'usager du biogaz utilise environ 2Kg de bois par jour contre 15Kg auparavant. L'utilisation du biogaz remplace donc 75 à 80% du bois à brûler. En conséquence, grâce au 600 méthaniseurs utilisés, plus de 1500 tonnes de bois seront sauvées chaque année. Dans le même temps, la méthanisation dispense les femmes du lourd travail de coupe du bois et son transport jusqu'au foyer. Une étude a révélé que le biogaz diminue la charge de travail d'une femme de 12Heures par semaine parce que le seul travail nécessaire est de fournir le méthaniseur de matière première soit le fumier de bétail auquel on ajoute de l'eau. C'est ainsi un réel progrès de la qualité de vie qui permet de cuisiner rapidement et sans souffrir de la fumée. Il n y a plus de corvée du bois, plus d'allumage du feu et donc plus de fumée dégagée par la combustion du bois.
La technique de la méthanisation permet à ses utilisateurs de cuisiner rapidement via les brûleurs à gaz et de s'éclairer grâce aux lampes à gaz et tout cela à partir des déchets produits par le bétail.
En réduisant la déforestation, reconnue comme problème clé, par le biogaz on réduit l'appauvrissement et l'inexploitation des sols. De plus, la combustion du biogaz fabriqué naturellement lors du processus de dégradation des matières organiques transforme le méthane en dioxyde de carbone qui est 20 fois moins polluant. Ce n'est pas le cas des décharges à ciel ouvert qui émettent elles aussi du biogaz et le relâchent dans l'atmosphère. Ainsi, la valorisation des déchets contribue à réduire l'effet de serre.
Enfin, la méthanisation produit également un compost naturel totalement inodore, excellent fertilisant et pesticide naturel qui peut être utilisé pour l'agriculture.
En conséquence grâce au développement des méthaniseurs, on entraîne un réel progrès dans les domaines de l'agriculture, de l'énergie, de l'environnement et de la qualité de vie.
Je vous fait voir quelques réalisations du projet
INTRODUCTION / BACKGROUND
Alternative source of household energy is a major problem in Africa sub of the Sahara and especially in Cameroon. Fuel wood is essentially the only source of household energy amongst the vulnerable and poor subsistent citizens living in the grassroots. This set of people covers about 70% of the total population. Due to increase in population and demographic pressure resulting to high demands of firewood has led to the destruction of forest and woodlands. It gives a negative impact to the tropical ecosystems. That is erosion and the impact on global warming to desertification and its effect to the ozone layer.
The increasing demographic pressure and the demand of wood for cooking both domestically and in small size medium enterprises has turned to delicacy in pollution and its effect to human health.
The hardship undergone by end users is unbearable for the fetch of firewood taking into consideration its labour intensive application. Given the fact that it affects especially women who are the bread searchers in the underprivileged zones.
The only economic sustainable solution is the replacement of firewood by natural methane gas extracted from organic waste. A strategy believed to be more economical and environmentally friendly and helps in poverty reduction. In recent years, good progress has been made by the development of alternative use of methane gas by developing other uses of the by products in agriculture which is the back bone of end users in the rural, remote and poor environments .
Electricity cost is relatively expensive for the vulnerable and poor population to bear, making life difficult. They bush lights which have negative effect in the health of users during nights. That is emitting carbon dioxide during sleeping hours causing lung diseases. The development of this technology is the most recent scientific achievement with less cost of production that can be bearable by the poor communities. It is also time saving and les labour needed, making life acceptable for the end users.
The improved system of energy source is proven to be eight times more productive than the traditional firewood source of energy. The wide scale of introduction can be expected to have a tremendous impact on energy supply security in a relative short time period.
An important characteristic of methane gas is it's that yields well, less costly and less labour intensive management practices thus saving time. It is also suited to areas where AIDS/HIV epidemic and ageing population has made labour severely scarce, limiting the initial source of energy.
The system has been tested in the field and is proven positive in its application and yield. This is done in the Eastern Province, precisely in Mindorou under the control of the local government, and in Bertoua in a family house where the quantity is significant and is permanent.
The major constraint to the wide scale adoption is that it involves mostly families and communities that are poor and cannot even afford for a dollar income per day. Consequently the acquisition of materials for construction poses a problem. This will be one of the issues that the project shall address to see how other development organizations can afford to facilitate and ease the constraints encountered by the beneficiaries.
The system is developed with a friendly environmental approach where the by products are used as pesticides and compost for eco farming. These technologies have been tested and proven to be a non chemical fertilizer and pesticide to improve on agricultural production.
These by products shall give way to related micro projects in agriculture which can improve the capacity and living standards of beneficiaries through market gardening and other short seasonal cultures that shall be identified in the field.
In the area of risk management, particular focus will be based on training of community technicians for monitoring existing plants and the construction of other plants. The occurrence of risk is less than 0% since there is no stockages.
The strategies, involving the local councils in energy development will provide and important component in energy management and good community governance which is rare in communities. This will create linkages in management and distribution, thus encouraging development approach to local good governance to better sustain the livelihood of the poor.
It can provide provision for the construction of low income houses by local government where their major source of energy both for cooking and lighting is methane gas.
Adoption of the related projects in agricultural improvement using end products of the systems will encourage competivity in the local and regional markets in the national level due to its particular focus on production based in ecofarming. Low technology solutions to agricultural products transformation and preservation shall be realized. In this way they can develop market sourcing, to ensure that markets will continue to exist for products developed. In this way they can sell previously unmarketable products and address the needs of the urban poor by selling at affordable prices. This will improve the nutritional value of the urban settlers.
The importance of improving the energy sector and agricultural productivity falls within the priorities of capacity building amongst the vulnerable group to ameliorate their living conditions.
Project of development of the Biogas in farming zone and freestanding farming zone.
• The main beneficiaries will be peasant women, youths and children living in remote, rural and shanty environments. This will be done by the introduction, implantation and use of the modern technologies for energy source. This will drastically reduce labour intensive use which is mostly used by women in managing their household activities. This will also save time for them to develop other activities that can yield them income. This will act as an accompanying activity to pursue the fight against poverty by using modern technology of energy.
• The contamination of water sources will be reduced and high incidences of diseases; especially diarrhea among children under five will drastically drop as at he project will develop community response from effective waste management.
• The project focuses on a technology which is labour saving and is appropriate for locations where labour is scarce. The integrated energy approach will have a positive impact on the environment, while allowing end users in the rural and remote areas to diversify and increase their production through labour gain.
• The implementation of the project shall be by the engineering group, working closely with local government, non governmental organization and community based organization. This shall have a strong focus on community development. The project will work towards strengthening the capacity of the beneficiaries to react rapidly to future changes in the economic and ecological environment in which they exist.
• The project will provide opportunities for local non governmental organizations and community based organizations to become involved in income generating activities resulting from energy used based end products. Increased rural income and better feeding will attract regional investment in agriculture and thus increase the sectors contribution to national development.
• The project will also improve the community's education on environmental protection and biodiversity.
• Another justification is the effective use of sewerage and sanitation to avoid poor sanitation and hygiene. This can compensate among other things the flushing toilets which are expensive to install or are completely broken down and its equipments vandalized.
LOCATION OF THE PROJECT
The project will be in Cameroon specifically in rural, shanty and remote areas where there is vulnerability of poverty and inaccessibility to electricity.
HOW THE PROJECT WORKS
The plant is an underground system with a concrete dome. It uses toilets, vegetable waste and animal waste which when modified permit water use as a means of transport of waste to the digester.
The water transports the waste along a slant gradient through pipes to the digester room. Bacteria within the dome act on the waste to produce biogas. This gas is relayed through the pipes systems connected to houses for use in cooking and lighting.
Sludge and waste are separated as by products for use as manure for agricultural production.
The goal is to reduce and gradually, completely eradicate the crisis of domestic energy in the rural, shanty and remote areas, while increasing food and income security through the use of by products for eco farming practices. That is to improve the community's overall health and wellbeing; and to induce attitudinal changes in the community with respect to development.
I. SPECIFIC PURPOSE
Is the transfer of the improved technology of biogas to break the vicious cycle of poverty in the suburbs by providing domestic bio gas, cooking equipments and lighting facilities. This will be done through the identification of each chosen locality in all the ten provinces of Cameroon. Each locality shall have five plants constructed for demonstration.
GENERAL OBJECTIVE I:
• Reduce the use of firewood for cooking.
• To reduce the rate of deforestation and its consequences. (Erosion, poor agricultural output and scarcity of water tables due to the modification of the hydrological cycle) etc.
• Is to transform human waste which is a nuisance and a health hazard to generate gas for cooking and lighting.
• To introduce and innovative, effective, sustainable and beneficial human waste disposal method.
• It will also provide household with cheap alternative source, to relieve them from dark or lack of kerosene or from exorbitant electricity bills.
• Associate livestock and agriculture through its source of material for extraction of biogas and the use of end products for pesticides and natural fertilizer. This will improve quantitatively and qualitatively agricultural production.
• Reduce labour intensive practices by women and youths.
• Ameliorate the livelihood of the rural inhabitants and the environment.
• Reduce the rate of rural to urban migration.
• Creation of employment in the rural zone through the construction of biogas ovens for food transformation.
• Training of trainers in the construction, follow up of new and existing plants.
GENERAL OBJECTIVE II
• To extend its implementation in community related structures especially in hospitals, dispensaries, prison, schools, local council social structures for the poor and other social service structure.
A. 360 families shall be supplied with cooking gas and lights.
B. Extend the project to public utilities in the suburbs. That is in prisons, health centers and public schools.
C. Make sure that within a period of ten years, the use of firewood can be reduced to 80 to 90%.
D. Provide to each locality alternative use of by products as pesticides and fertilizers to improve agricultural productivity.
E. Provide better water catchments for water consumption.
F. Construct common initiative ovens for food transformation.( bakeries) for each locality.
A. PROVIDE IMPROVED BIOGAS TECHNOLOGY TO END USERS IN CAMEROON
• Acquisition of sites and materials.
• Construction of non existing latrines.
• Visual recording.
• Mobilization through sensitization and education.
• Stakeholders meeting.
• Community participation in the realization identification and memorandum.
• Construction of biogas structures
B. TRAINING OF COMMUNITY TECHNICIANS.
Prior to each stage of production cycle, training seminars will be held with selected community workers. This will be in view to training on the construction methods and maintenance. One of the important areas to be covered shall be the integration of agricultural extension workers, to help beneficiaries improve on their agricultural outputs. Trained technicians, agricultural extension workers and beneficiaries will organize regular village and/or group training and technology transfer to others.
C. COMMUNITY LEVEL COORDINATION
At the start of the project, a stakeholder meeting will be held to introduce the project to the participating community.
Further meetings of relevant stakeholder meeting will be organized regularly to develop new ideas related to the technology. These meetings will focus on related projects and impact evaluation to the socio economic and environmental issues. It will also focus on the designing of a curriculum for training in sectorial development of projects and create linkages to other sustainable developments and environmental education.
The project is piloted by the engineer who enters into agreement with the community or locality. Through concertation with partners the supervision and management support are designed through the community programme or individual programme. A project management committee is structured and methodology approved with roles.
1. IMPROVED TECHOLOGY
The construction of the plants shall be the main implantation process, queued with the construction of local gas cockers and connecting techniques for the technology to be used. This will be followed by the training of trainers, in the supervision of the implementing group which will provide individuals with services to build their own plants.
2. COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT
Chosen site will be used for demonstration which is the meeting point for active partners to develop a common agenda towards the adoption of related projects from the main project.
It will also provide a location for training of trainers in a range of skills and technologies related to other projects developed from biogas project. The focus is to transfer technologies which are new and are available, but are not widely used.
It will also introduce the effective waste management to the community.
The project will result in increased use of energy with no labour stress. It will improve the life style of about 360 families in the first phase. Each site can demonstrate the constant supply of biogas which is expected to produce 100 to 250 kg of gas which can be sufficient for cooking and lighting of a household.
Beneficiary families can boast of access to cheap source of energy for lighting and cooking and will realize a drastic cut in their household expenditure. This could be achieved by the -Construction d'équipements biogaz de 8 à 16 m3.
The community is using the by products of the digester on crop production. That is sludge is used as fertilizer and fluid waste as pesticides
The value of increased agricultural productivity from the by product of biogas can considerably increase the income of each household. The future evaluation of the impact of related projects will determine the degree of income acquired from the project.
The second point is that of the reduced rate of deforestation in woodlands and savanna forest.
There shall be improvement in sanitation arising from proper disposal of waste. The latrines are clean and do not require replacements or emptying. This is a good indicator for reduction in incidences in air and water borne diseases.
With the participation of stakeholders and the community, shall provide the access to community influence to policy at the municipal level.
• The project is inbuilt with potentials of sustainability since it is a local initiative. This is because it is identified, designed, and is being managed by individuals and the local community.
• It uses local raw materials. That is human waste supplemented with animal droppings are rapidly available, cost free and it is managed by locally trained manpower. In cities ready waste from slaughter houses are equally important to generate the digester.
• There is a ready demand. All the power generated is transmitted and used in houses around the project site no loss.
• It is presumed that, there is a ready market for its products. The power generated is transmitted and used in houses with no loss, with a high demand for the sludge and fluid waste.
• The project enjoys strong support from the community which according to its justification trains a community technician to supervise its operations and construction of others on a continuous.